Part04 - Types of articles: A guide for young researchers Key takeaways: A systematic review is a thorough and detailed review of existing literature on a particular topic, designed to address a specific question. Systematic reviews are especially important in evidence-based medicine.
See Article History Nursing, profession that assumes responsibility for the continuous care of the sick, the injured, the disabled, and the dying. Nursing is also responsible for encouraging the health of individuals, families, and communities in medical and community settings.
Nurses are actively involved in health care research, management, policy deliberations, and patient advocacy. Nurses with postbaccalaureate preparation assume independent responsibility for providing primary health care and specialty services to individuals, families, and communities.
Professional nurses work both independently and in collaboration with other health care professionals such as physicians. Professional nurses supervise the work of nurses who have limited licenses, such as licensed practical nurses LPNs in the United States and enrolled nurses ENs in Australia.
Professional nurses also oversee the work of nursing assistants in various settings. Nursing is the largest, the most diverseand one of the most respected of all the health care professions.
There are more than 2. While true demographic representation remains an elusive goal, nursing does have a higher proportional representation of racial and ethnic minorities than other health care professions.
In some countries, however, men still remain significantly underrepresented. The demand for nursing remains high, and projections suggest that such demand will substantively increase.
Advances in health care technology, rising expectations of people seeking care, and reorganization of health care systems require a greater number of highly educated professionals. Demographic changes, such as large aging populations in many countries of the world, also fuel this demand.
History of nursing Although the origins of nursing predate the midth century, the history of professional nursing traditionally begins with Florence Nightingale. Nightingale, the well-educated daughter of wealthy British parents, defied social conventions and decided to become a nurse.
The nursing of strangers, either in hospitals or in their homes, was not then seen as a respectable career for well-bred ladies, who, if they wished to nurse, were expected to do so only for sick family and intimate friends.
In a radical departure from these views, Nightingale believed that well-educated women, using scientific principles and informed education about healthy lifestyles, could dramatically improve the care of sick patients.
Moreover, she believed that nursing provided an ideal independent calling full of intellectual and social freedom for women, who at that time had few other career options. Newspaper stories reporting that sick and wounded Russian soldiers nursed by religious orders fared much better than British soldiers inflamed public opinion.
Within days of their arrival, Nightingale and her nurses had reorganized the barracks hospital in accordance with 19th-century science: Within weeks death rates plummeted, and soldiers were no longer sickened by infectious diseases arising from poor sanitary conditions.
For centuries, most nursing of the sick had taken place at home and had been the responsibility of families, friends, and respected community members with reputations as effective healers. During epidemicssuch as choleratyphusand smallpoxmen took on active nursing roles.
For example, Stephen Girarda wealthy French-born banker, won the hearts of citizens of his adopted city of Philadelphia for his courageous and compassionate nursing of the victims of the yellow fever epidemic.
Stephen Girard, lithograph by A. Newsam after a portrait by B. As urbanization and industrialization spread, those without families to care for them found themselves in hospitals where the quality of nursing care varied enormously.
Some patients received excellent care. Women from religious nursing orders were particularly known for the quality of the nursing care they provided in the hospitals they established.ABSTRACTThis paper is a synthesis of the available literature on occupational therapy interventions performed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU).
The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, pfmlures.com and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception through August for studies of adults who received occupational therapy interventions in the ICU.
This systematic review examined outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their.
The next step is for the researchers to read the full text of each article identified for inclusion in the review and extract the pertinent data using a standardized data extraction/coding form.
The data extraction form should be as long or as short as necessary and can be coded for computer analysis if . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. The concept of Nursing Process.
Nursing process has been defined by several authors. Nwonu () defined Nursing process as the systematic collection of patient care data for determining nursing care needs and evaluating patient care outcomes.
Definitions of evidence based nursing have varied in scholarly literature. Scott & McSherry's extensive literature review looked at commonalities between EBN definitions and synthesized them to come up with the following definition.