Oyo Empire During the 15th century Oyo and Benin surpassed Ife as political and economic powers, although Ife preserved its status as a religious center. Respect for the priestly functions of the oni of Ife was a crucial factor in the evolution of Yoruban culture.
So a wide topic, posing considerable narrative challenges, but far from impossible. National history is always ideologically fraught, difficult to separate the project from nation-building more generally. As Benedict Anderson famously observed, national projects are always acts of imagination 1 — bringing a national community into existence and then positing that it has a natural, non-political, trans-historical quality.
These imagined communities, groups who belong together within one state because of social affinity, can treat attempts at historiography as a source of national charter myths, celebrating particular views of national belonging while omitting inconvenient counter-narratives.
And so a too-rigorous history of the nation is often unpopular — as some citizens of the U. Covering a national history is thus inevitably difficult, all the more so when the nation in question is one like Nigeria, which was created in by the amalgamation of the British protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria, themselves only slightly older.
The boundary-creating exercises of European powers at the start of widespread colonization in the late 19th century grouped populations together willy-nilly, often with very different languages, cultures, and historical patterns of interaction. African nationalist movements became significant after the Second World War but could not posit the inherent community of a Congolese, an Ivorian, a Nigerian nation and instead emphasized their opposition to colonial control.
The histories that accompanied these movements tended to stress the power and legitimacy of pre-colonial states or longstanding patterns of resistance to colonial rule. Ideologically, the emphasis was much more on the desirability and necessity of self-rule rather than a national identity warranting an independent state.
For Chatterjee, the challenge of nationalism was that it was a European political category whose salience in countries like India came from the colonial encounter. This was paradoxical, because the basic unit of political freedom and self-determination arose from a political relationship denying precisely that.
The categories of belonging the nation was supposed to reflect did not correspond to the boundaries it occupied. The African nation-state was doubly derivative of European political projects — both the nation as a political project and the state as a geo-political construct were created by the colonial encounter.
National history in Africa has therefore been difficult to write. The need to overcome the legacies of colonialism, the highly artificial quality of national boundaries, and as a direct consequence of arbitrary borders the distinct and often divergent interests of local communities 4 within the state all complicated attempts to craft a narrative of national self-becoming.
But national historiography faced daunting empirical challenges as well. Only during the s did mainstream academic history begin to look at the African past, starting systematic efforts to trace out the histories of peoples who now found themselves brought together within the relatively new system of state boundaries mandated by the colonial powers, and to narrate these in an idiom of disinterested western academic knowledge and in European languages.
Unsurprisingly, these works have tended toward narrating a pastiche of regional histories of political events and great men, leavened with archeological findings and historicized social anthropology.
However, the senior co-author in particular is almost uniquely qualified to undertake it as probably the most prolific and wide-ranging historian of Nigeria in the world.
The result of their collaboration is impressive.
Yet more remarkably, it does not confine its account to political history but rather successfully intertwines political, economic, cultural, and social developments. The first chapter, which covers the period BCE — CE, perhaps unavoidably, is a somewhat sprawling attempt to survey a huge number of societies with little to unite the material thematically.
The second chapter, considering —, examines Nigerian societies through the lens of slavery and the slave trade. This is a particularly insightful choice, since it brings into focus many of the most important developments that intensified links between different societies in the area of modern Nigeria during the early modern period.
Slavery, slave-raiding, and the traffic in people within Nigeria and beyond proved central to political and economic transformation while simultaneously causing widespread change even within the most intimate domains of family life.
The third chapter, which considers the first half of the 19th century, continues looking at the same dynamics: The next three chapters look at the expansion of British colonial control across the latter 19th century, at the colonial period to the start of the great depression, and at the remainder of the colonial period with an emphasis on anti-colonial resistance and nationalism.
Chapter eight then considers —83, emphasizing the transformative effects of the oil boom as military regimes ceded power to the Second Republic inwhich in turn imploded in with the a fall in oil prices and the start of the international debt crisis. Chapter nine takes the account almost to the present, looking at the military — and civilian regimes that have governed a Nigeria troubled by persistent low oil prices and sky-rocketing corruption.
The final chapter on Nigerians in the wider world and the afterword on corruption then serve as timely reminders that a national history is meaningful only in global terms and that the issue of corruption is key both to understanding contemporary dynamics in Nigerian politics, the way in which Nigeria is perceived internationally, and how it might ultimately be transformed in the future.
Unsurprisingly, given the scope of the work, specialist readers will find a few quibbles here and there.Textbooks of Nigerian history did appear soon after independence (Michael Crowder’s The Story of Nigeria was originally published in , only two years afterwards), and it was succeeded among others by Elizabeth Isichei’s truly excellent History of Nigeria.
Nigeria is a country of , square kilometres (, sq mi), bound to the west by Benin, to the north by the Niger and Chad Republic, east by the Republic of Cameroon, and south by the Gulf of . nigeria’s political leadership since and the rhythms of corruption It would be an exercise in futility going into the details of the intricate political interplay that characterised each of the phases of Nigeria’s chequered political history; these histories have been well.
Brief History of Education in Nigeria. Since the ordinance took place after amalgamation, it was able to take care of the country as a whole. History of educational planning before please!
Reply. SAMSON "> at. please i need the history of ‘ENVIROMENTAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’. Brief History of Education in Nigeria. Nigeria is the most populous black nation in the world, located in West Africa, bordered by the Republic of Benin on the west, Niger on the north, northeast by Chad and east by Cameroon.
February-March - Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger form military coalition and push Boko Haram out of all towns back into Sambisa Forest.
President Buhari elected March - Muhammadu Buhari wins the presidential election, becoming the first opposition candidate to do so in Nigeria's history.