German re-alignment to Austria-Hungary and Russian re-alignment to France, —[ edit ] In German and Russian alignment was secured by means of a secret Reinsurance Treaty arranged by Otto von Bismarck. However, in the treaty was allowed to lapse in favor of the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary.
The true believers in a quick and decisive victory for the South were all gone by then.
Now Richmond huddled behind a besieged army, listening to the perpetual boom of enemy artillery, awaiting an inevitable conclusion. Richmond had been the capital of the Confederacy since Maywhen the new Confederate Congress voted to move it there from Montgomery, Ala.
Prewar Richmond had become an important international city, trading coffee, spices, slaves and other commodities for cotton and tobacco.
Five foreign nations had consulates in the city. Thirteen working foundries made it the iron-manufacturing capital of the South. The Tredegar Iron Works made more than 1, cannons, in addition to mines, torpedoes, propeller shafts and other such war machinery. The Richmond Laboratory manufactured more than 72 million cartridges, as well as grenades, gun carriages, field artillery and canteens.
The Richmond Armory had a capacity for manufacturing 5, small arms a month. There were also 8 flour mills, a paper mill, 13 carriage manufacturers, 10 saddle and harness makers, 4 gunsmiths, a sailmaker, 4 soap and candle manufacturers, 2 rolling mills, 14 slave traders, 14 hotels, 13 newspapers, 15 restaurants, 11 private schools, 26 druggists, 9 dentists, 72 doctors, 72 saloons, a canal and 5 railroads.
With a population of about 38, Richmond was the second largest city of the Confederacy, trailing only New Orleans. But for all its commercial success, prewar Richmond had kept a small-town atmosphere, probably because the social elite had been more or less constant for many years and all the leading families had known each other since childhood.
But the war had brought great changes to Richmond, and its oldest citizens had trouble recognizing the city of their youth. Situated at the headwaters of the James River, miles from Washington, D. Now it was a beleaguered city, not only from without but also from within.
As the capital of the Confederacy, Richmond had seen an influx of thousands of people, many of them a much different sort than the patrician city was accustomed to. Along with the hundreds of regiments from farther south and thousands of people to staff the various government offices came swarms of unsavory speculators, gamblers, drifters, prostitutes and derelicts of every description.
The population grew to , straining the physical and social resources of the city.
Saloons, gambling halls, billiard parlors, cockfighting dens and houses of prostitution proliferated. One newspaper editor wrote disgustedly: The pure society of Richmond became woefully adulterated.
Its peace was destroyed, its good name defiled; it became a den of thieves, extortioners, substitutes, deserters and blacklegs. February had seen the fall of Fort Fisher, N.
Simmons, whose husband was in the trenches, summed up living in Richmond in her diary of March 23, You can carry your money in your market basket and bring home your provisions in your purse.
My first visit was to my banker, one who dealt largely in Confederate securities, and knew too well the ups and downs of the Confederate cause by the fluctuations of its paper.
As soon as he could give me a private moment he said in a sad, low tone: The loss of Richmond, though becoming more and more likely as time went on, was an eventuality that most citizens chose to deny. They chose rather to expect miracles from their proud Southern military leaders, who had so dazzled the country for four long years.
The worsening military situation did, however, give more credence to those Confederates who favored a negotiated truce. Unfortunately, it also served to undermine whatever negotiating power the South might have had. There were two official attempts to negotiate a peace that might salvage some of the Confederacy and avoid forcing a fight to the finish.Lecture 14 The Origins of the Cold War: There are now two great nations in the world, which starting from different points, seem to be advancing toward the .
9/1/ • America's Civil War Ezra Pound, the renegade poet of the 20th century, spent his later years disavowing the actions of his youth.
Confronted by a student in his Harvard poetry class wanting to know why he had censored his own poem, ‘Sestina: Altaforte,’ which praises war, Pound replied slowly and deliberately, ‘War is no longer amusing.’.
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States and it is probably true that it was the splits in the churches which made a final split of the national inevitable." There were many causes of the Civil War, but the religious conflict.
The watershed event of United States history was the American Civil War (–), fought in North America within the territory of the United States of America, between 24 mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that.
The Causes of the American Civil War Essay Example. The American Civil War of was fought between the Union (the northern states) and The Confederates (the southern states) under the presidency of Abraham Lincoln.
Secession was inevitable based on the events that occurred from ; The War with Mexico, the Acquisition of Oregon and Texas, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act were three of these important events that led to the inevitable secession and Civil War.