The four critical components of curriculum in the book basic principles of curriculum and instructio

Multicultural education Sheltered instruction The metaphor of all boats rising or sinking together is often used when describing approaches to standards-based reform, such as the No Child Left Behind Act. For example, in order for a school to achieve adequate yearly progress AYPall student subgroups, including English language learners, students with disabilities, and students from minority groups, must make adequate yearly progress. The progress of the group as a whole cannot mask the lack of development of designated subgroups.

The four critical components of curriculum in the book basic principles of curriculum and instructio

The Critical Role of Classroom Management Teachers play various roles in a typical classroom, but surely one of the most important is that of classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom.

If students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm. In these situations, both teachers and students suffer. Teachers struggle to teach, and students most likely learn much less than they should. In contrast, well-managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish.

But a well-managed classroom doesn't just appear out of nowhere. It takes a good deal of effort to create—and the person who is most responsible for creating it is the teacher. We live in an era when research tells us that the teacher is probably the single most important factor affecting student achievement—at least the single most important factor that we can do much about.

To illustrate, as a result of their study involving some 60, students, S. The results of this study will document that the most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher.

In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor.

Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels regardless of the levels of heterogeneity in their classes. If the teacher is ineffective, students under that teacher's tutelage will achieve inadequate progress academically, regardless of how similar or different they are regarding their academic achievement.

The point is illustrated in Figure 1. According to Figure 1. Students in the classes of teachers classified as least effective can be expected to gain only about 14 percentile points over a year's time. The least effective teachers, then, add little to the development of students' knowledge and skill beyond what would be expected from simply growing one year older in our complex, information-rich society.

Impact of Teacher Effectiveness on Student Achievement Sanders and his colleagues, who gathered their data from elementary school students in Tennessee, are not the only ones to document dramatic differences in achievement between students in classes taught by highly ineffective versus highly effective teachers.

Haycock reports similar findings from studies conducted in Dallas and Boston.

Can Inclusion Really Work in Diverse, Standards-Based Classrooms?

I have come to similar conclusions in my work, although I have taken a very different approach from that used in the studies that form the basis for Haycock's conclusions. Whereas the studies conducted in Tennessee, Dallas, and Boston were based on data acquired from students over time, I used a research process called meta-analysis to synthesize the research on effective schools over the last 35 years see Marzano, a, b.

That approach enabled me to separate the effect on student achievement of a school in general from the effect of an individual teacher. Effects of a School vs. For a detailed discussion of how the computations in Figure 1.

As depicted in Figure 1. The student has learned enough to keep pace with her peers.

The four critical components of curriculum in the book basic principles of curriculum and instructio

But what happens to that student if she attends a school that is considered one of the least effective and is unfortunate enough to have a teacher who is classified as one of the least effective?

After two years she has dropped from the 50th percentile to the 3rd percentile. She may have learned something about mathematics, but that learning is so sporadic and unorganized that she has lost considerable ground in a short time.

In the third scenario, the same student is in a school classified as most effective, but she has a teacher classified as least effective. Although the student entered the class at the 50th percentile, two years later she leaves the class at the 37th percentile.

In contrast to the two previous scenarios, the fourth presents a very optimistic picture. The student is not only in a school classified as most effective, but also is in the class of a teacher classified as most effective. She enters the class at the 50th percentile, but she leaves at the 96th percentile.

The fifth scenario most dramatically depicts the impact of an individual teacher. Again, the student is in a school that is considered least effective, but she is with a teacher classified as most effective. The student now leaves the class at the 63rd percentile—13 percentile points higher than the point at which she entered.

It is this last scenario that truly depicts the importance of individual teachers. Even if the school they work in is highly ineffective, individual teachers can produce powerful gains in student learning.

Although the effect the classroom teacher can have on student achievement is clear, the dynamics of how a teacher produces such an effect are not simple. Rather, the effective teacher performs many functions. These functions can be organized into three major roles: The first role deals with instructional strategies and their use.Effective Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary is one of five core components of reading instruction that are essential to successfully teach children how to read.

Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines | LD Topics | LD OnLine

These core components include phonemic awareness, phonics and word study, fluency, Graves () has advocated a four-part program that includes wide reading, teaching. This enhanced access to a general education curriculum should include Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles and materials for students with difficulties reading and understanding print that meet the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS).

In classrooms with a focus on grammar, students are first taught the parts of speech, parts of sentences, clauses, types of sentences, etc. The purpose of this approach is to "help students understand how the English language works" (Hillocks, , p.

75). Four specific skills are most important for preparing students to succeed in the 21st Century: critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity. NEA developed this guide to help K educators incorporate these ideas into their instruction.

Book for Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties, Including Dyslexia. David Anderson, Director of Curriculum and Professional Development. CONTENTS Presentation Notes Slide 1: Foundations of Reading: Effective Phonological Awareness Instruction Academy and know basic information about phonological awareness.

It isn't enough simply to add on components of a fragmented curriculum to balance one with another.) Finally, they noted that effective reading teachers adapt their instruction, making changes designed to meet the needs of different students.

Essentials for Effective Reading Instruction | RTI Action Network