Introduction In a issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, an article titled "It's Over Debbie" describes how an anonymous doctor administers a fatal dose of morphine to a woman dying of ovarian cancer Anonymous, In a issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, ten doctors associated with the nation's leading hospitals and medical schools declare their belief that "it is not immoral for a physician to assist in the rational suicide of a terminally ill person" Wanzer, et. Timothy Quill which discussed his decision to help a patient suffering from leukemia commit suicide Quill, Jack Kervorkian uses his suicide machine to help a woman suffering from Alzheimer's disease, one Janet Adkins, end her life in the back of a Volkswagen bus Risen,
This article addresses wisdom-in-action for nursing practice. We briefly describe nursing theoryreview the wisdom literature as presented in various disciplines, and identify characteristics of wisdom by analyzing four models of wisdom from other disciplines. We also present the ten antecedents of wisdom and the ten characteristics of wisdom identified in our analysis of the wisdom literature, discuss and summarize these antecedents, and conclude that understanding these ten antecedents and the ten characteristics of wisdom-in-action can both help nurses demonstrate wisdom as they provide nursing care and teach new nurses the process of becoming wise in nursing practice.
Thomas Stearns Eliotp. Eliot wrote this poetic line inrelating wisdom to knowledge and suggesting a distinct relationship between the concepts. Scope and Standards of Practice adding the concept of wisdom to the accepted framework of data, information, and knowledge concepts in nursing informatics.
Wisdom is defined in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as a knowledge gained through life experiences, b the innate ability to understand things that others cannot understand, and c judgment or good sense. Because nurses have a desire to apply wisdom within their practice and nurse informaticists need to understand how to support the use of wisdom in practice see discussion belowa clearer understanding of the concept is needed.
This article describes a deliberate study to identify characteristics of nursing wisdom by examining four theories in other disciplines. Nursing Theory Theory is used in all aspects of nursing care and assists the practicing nurse in organizing, understanding and analyzing patient data.
Nursing theory facilitates the development of nursing knowledge and provides principles to support nursing practice. Nursing theory is developed from groups of concepts and describes their interrelationships, thus presenting a systematic view of nursing-related events.
Theory is used in all aspects of nursing care and assists the practicing nurse in organizing, understanding and analyzing patient data. Essentially, theory provides a systematic, consistent way of thinking about nursing care to guide the decision-making process.
Theory-based, clinical practice occurs when nurses intentionally structure their practice around a particular theory to guide them in their care of the patient. One of the greatest contributions grand theories Different levels of nursing theory exist; these levels include metatheory, grand theory, and mid-range theories.
Metatheories focus on theory about theory. These theories develop through asking philosophical and methodological questions to form a nursing foundation. One of the greatest contributions grand theories, largely developed between the s and the s, provide for nursing is the differentiation between nursing practice and the practice of medicine.
They offer the specificity needed for usefulness in research and practice, usually focusing on one specific topic or area of care and often beginning with a concept analysis and the development of a larger conceptual model often called a construct.
Review of the Wisdom Literature Wisdom is an abstract ideal, an end-point or characteristic, something applied in, yet separate from practice. Today, we have a large body of literature about wisdom, although much of it does not relate to wisdom in nursing practice.
Wisdom is an abstract ideal, an end-point or characteristic, something applied in, yet separate from practice. To support this exploration, definitions of wisdom from the early classic philosophy and psychology literature, and the alignment of these definitions with nursing, as well as definitions from the nursing literature are presented.
Philosophy Classical philosophers began defining wisdom as early as B. Plato wrote that wisdom is the knowledge about the good between all that exists Truglio-Londrigan, while according to Aristotle, wisdom is knowledge of the first causes and principles of things Rice, Aristotle differentiated wisdom into five states of mind: All five of these wisdom states could define the art and science of nursing practice.
The nursing profession is built upon scientific knowledge episteme and nursing practice is grounded with theory theoretikes ANA, Nurses must understand and stay abreast of current technology techne. One of the nursing standards of practice is ethics; hence, nurses integrate ethics phronesis into all areas of their practice.
Finally, the art of nursing practice is based on a framework of caring sophia. Psychology Personal wisdom comes into play after experienced nurses reflect on their own practice, and learn from their experiences, thereby increasing their personal knowledge.
General wisdom is directed toward other individuals from a third-person perspective. It is a personal trait manifested by caring for others.
These are both important to understand because nursing pertains to both general and personal wisdom. Afterwards, learning from the caring experience can be applied personally. Personal wisdom comes into play after experienced nurses reflect on their own practice, and learn from their experiences, thereby increasing their personal knowledge.
Results demonstrated that all age groups were able to change negative life experiences into positive ones when wisdom was used.
Resulting themes included morality, integrity, overcoming risk or adversity, searching for insight, and striving toward individual improvement. Wisdom is assumed to be intrinsically associated with age and experience Wisdom is assumed to be intrinsically associated with age and experience.
Although older people have more experiences, age is not the only characteristic associated with wisdom.1 Moral Distress: Its Impact on Nursing Pamela S.
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Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality. The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual.".
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology..
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. OJIN is a peer-reviewed, online publication that addresses current topics affecting nursing practice, research, education, and the wider health care sector.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).