In the United States, reporters ought to have the right to protect the identity of confidential sources. The United States ought to provide a universal basic income.
Oxford University Press, Sussex Academic Press, Harper Collins UKNovember There has been a raft of excellent scholarship on World War I in the Middle East in recent years, although the four excellent books under review here clearly demonstrate, each in its own way, that there remains a great deal of scope for original scholarship on the subject.
During the course of the Great War, a majority of military planners dismissed the war in the Middle East as little more than a sideshow, a dangerous distraction from the "real" war taking place in the trenches of continental Europe.
Just a few short miles from the trenches, across the English Channel, London-based military planners were struggling to deal with modern warfare, waged on an industrial scale. Inwhen new volunteers ceased coming forward in numbers sufficient to replace those killed and wounded, conscription of unmarried men between the ages of 18 to 41 was introduced in Britain.
Because the largest battles, and thus the highest casualties, were taking place in Western Europe, the military planners were loath to lose a single able-bodied man from the trenches, and the goal of defeating Germany, to parts of the world seen as being of secondary importance.
For the Middle East, this meant the deployment of large numbers of imperial troops, including soldiers from the British-run Indian Army, as well as Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere.
Reflecting the numbers of troops fighting and dying in France, T. Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia, seemed to pour scorn on his campaigning efforts when he described the Arab Revolt as "a sideshow of a sideshow. Also worthy of note is the fact that, after France, the Middle East saw more casualties than any other theatre in the war.
The Arab Revolt was launched by Hussein bin Ali, the sharif of Mecca, in the Hijaz region of the Arabian Peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, in June and effectively came to an end in October with the capture of Damascus by Arab and, later the same day, Australian forces.
Hussein had recently discovered an Ottoman plot to have him removed from the hereditary post of sharif and emir prince of Mecca. This was not the first time the Ottoman sultan in his imperial capital of Constantinople had drawn up plans to replace the independent-minded Hussein with a more passive client in the Hijaz.
Fearing for his position, possibly his life, and any chance of continuing prestige for his family and their descendants, Hussein threw in his lot with the British and agreed to launch an uprising against his Ottoman masters. The negotiations that brought Hussein to his momentous decision agreed in principle to the postwar creation of an independent Arab kingdom with Hussein as its king.
Although Hussein laid out his demands for the geographical extent of this new kingdom, as recorded in the Hussein-McMahon correspondence, a final agreement was not reached before the start of the Arab Revolt.
With the above modification and without prejudice to our existing treaties concluded with Arab Chiefs, we accept these limits and boundaries, and in regard to the territories therein in which Great Britain is free to act without detriment to interests of her ally France, I am empowered in the name of the Government of Great Britain to give the following assurance and make the following reply to your letter: Subject to the above modifications, Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories in the limits and boundaries proposed by the Sherif of Mecca.
Over the years, we have been treated to any number of general histories of the Great War, including diplomatic histories although in this last category there remain some important gaps in the existing scholarship that ought to be filled.
With a detailed examination of the strategic and operational progress of the war, Johnson unequivocally shows that, rather than a sideshow, the Middle East was, in fact, the fulcrum on which the global war balanced.
As a former British Army officer, he also demonstrates an ability to write about strategy and other military matters in an adroit and engaging fashion. Perhaps in part stung by widespread antipathy towards a late family member, Christopher Simon Sykes sets out not just to offer a new biography of his grandfather, but also to some extent try to clear his name.
This year marks years since the Sykes-Picot Agreement was written, and to many who live in or are concerned with the Middle East it continues to rankle.
In a room at Number 10 Downing Street, Sykes explained his idea for Asquith in the breeziest of terms: The arrogance and entitlement displayed by the imperial powers goes a long way to explaining the continuing ill will towards the names Sykes and Picot. In the interests of the factual accuracy of the historical record, one should note that the Sykes-Picot Agreement not a treaty was never in fact implemented, its terms being superseded by events and subsequent treaty agreements, notably San Remo Having his name indelibly linked to an agreement that is still brought up as one of several reasons for continuing instability and unrest in the modern Middle East is certainly not how Sir Mark Sykes would want to be remembered.
In fact, he understood what a controversial agreement he and his French counterpart had negotiated and would rather not have had his name associated with what is officially called the Asia Minor Agreement.
Had the Sykes-Picot Agreement not developed the notoriety it has, we might not remember the name Sykes at all. In this regard, too, the title might lead readers to heap more opprobrium on the subject than the author intends.
To move from the spotlight to the shadows, Sir Gilbert Clayton is far from a household name. In Seven Pillars of Wisdom, T.This paper provides a brief evaluation of the American foreign policy and measures taken to make the region very peaceful for the Obama Administration.
We have started from the Cold war pre-circumstances and presently prevailing conditions of the Middle East with perspective of the America foreign policy. When viewed in the current context, the war on Iraq, the war on Lebanon, the war on Libya, the ongoing war on Syria, not to mention the process of regime change in Egypt, must be understood in relation to the Zionist Plan for the Middle East.
To vote for topics, log in to your Account page and select “NSDA Voting” from the left side menu. Current member coaches and students are eligible to vote. Policy Debate topic . Interior design: Interior design, planning and design of man-made spaces, a part of environmental design and closely related to architecture.
Although the desire to create a pleasant environment is as old as civilization itself, the field of interior design is relatively new. Since at least the middle of the 20th. Commentary and Analysis on Radical Islam and the Middle East, by Daniel Pipes.
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